“The fortune tellers have different backgrounds,” Vervaeke explained. “For some the job is passed on from each generation to the next within a family. Others learn it from a Master or through other means. The future of the shops is uncertain, however, as finding someone interested to take over is getting more and more difficult.” He also added that the rise of online fortune telling puts the physical institutions’ futures in jeopardy.
A new PhD dissertation related to the I Ching is available, “Divination And Deviation: The Problem Of Prediction And Personal Freedom In Early China” by Yunwoo Song, from the University of Pennsylvania. This interesting dissertation explores ancient methods and meaning of divination in early China through early imperial times. The dissertation can be viewed at UPenn’s site.
Curious about how people in past centuries envisioned the I Ching hexagrams? Visit our RESOURCES page to see some examples of charts organized by trigrams or received order.
These handy diagrams were used to study characteristics and relationships between hexagrams, as mnemonics to help memorize hexagrams, and as hexagram finding aids.
The Nuclear Hexagram Chart by Qian Chengzhi (Qing dynasty) to the left is one example. Around the outside are the sixty-four I Ching hexagrams with their names, arranged by lower trigrams in the “Pre-heavenly” order (the same as the Fuxi/Shaoyong chart). The second ring inward are the nuclear hexagrams for the outer ring, formed from the inner four lines of the original hexagrams. The third ring repeats the process, in each case yielding one of the four “core” hexagrams.
Richard Bertschinger, translation and commentary
Singing Dragon 2012
Hardcover/ebook, 336 pp.
US $30 / £25.00
Yijing, Shamanic Oracle of China is a nicely presented contemplative book. Richard Bertschinger, an acupuncturist and student of Gia-fu Feng, has done an engaging job of presenting his thoughts about the Yijing. With occasional cross-cultural philosophical comparisons, Bertschinger presents a translation of the core Zhouyi and selected Wings, enhanced with his comments, and including a helpful glossary.
“The Yijing can reveal the seeds of the future, but above all it teaches reverence for those small inklings in the present which determine the science of change. It encourages us all to be alive to the world, and take a stand on destiny.”
Bertschinger’s translation emphasizes finding one’s path. “You can transform those observing below, by observing the causes of your own life. Observe yourself within and contemplate the evens of your own life. At no time neglect to seek the middle path and at all times act properly” (from Hexagram 20).
This is a very accessible Yijing book, drawn from the author’s reading of traditional Chinese texts, accessible to beginners, but meaty enough for experienced users.
Chinese scholars are asking for help with deciphering thousands of oracle bones, and are offering rewards:
“The National Museum of Chinese Writing in Anyang, Henan province, has issued a worldwide appeal for help to decipher thousands of esoteric characters cut into bones and shells dating back more than 3,000 years to the Shang dynasty.
The inscriptions, resembling modern characters, are the earliest written records of Chinese civilisation and shed light on life and society at a time.
They were carved by fortune-tellers on turtle shells and ox shoulder blades known as oracle bones, and record questions on everything from weather to taxes.
So far, scholars have managed to crack the code to less than half of the roughly 5,000 characters found on excavated oracle bones. Around 3,000 of them remain a mystery.” Read the whole article here.
An interesting article in the Asian Times addresses how cultural viewpoints come to light in the logic behind artificial intelligence, nicely explaining Boolean logic that underlies modern computing.
Famed Yijing scholar Lai Zhide (Lai Chih-te, 1525–1604) of the Ming Dynasty was heralded for his in-depth investigation of the hexagram graphics and collection of a vast array of charts on the subject. His book has been in print, in many editions, continually since.
Dr. Larry Schulz wrote his dissertation on Lai, and has made his thesis “Lai Chih-te and the Phenomonolgy of the ‘Classic of Change’ (I Ching)” as well as more recent articles about the hexagram order available at his own website.
Routledge, 2003, paper 2015
Paper, 391 pp
Also available in hardcover and eboook
A better title for this splendid book might have been A Quite Comprehensive Encyclopedic Companion to the Yijing. Despite the focus on Han-Song dynasties, devotees of any era or type of Yijing studies will find this book invaluable. The author, Bent Nielsen, professor of Asian Studies at the University of Copenhagen, has drawn from a good range of source material in covering the many schools of Yijing thought.
The book entries cover the gamut of Yijing topics, from the towering personalities such as Wang Bi and Yu Fan, to intriguing theories such as the Six Gateways (liu men), to obscure terms like the “Hexagrams of the Returning Souls” (gui hun gua), and to numerous explanatory charts and tables. The entries are in alphabetical order in pinyin, with traditional characters and translation.
A Companion assumes a certain level of familiarity with Yijing terms. One hates to quibble about such a wonderful book, however, given all the time periods, ideas, terms, and languages involved, a thorough index with cross-references would have been a nice addition. A small example: the word jing is explained as meaning “classic,” however, there is no entry or cross-reference under “classic.” Another example: the ideas of influential Ming dynasty Yijing writer Lai Zhide (1525–1604) feature in entries such as about hexagram order (guaxu) and “laterally linked hexagrams” (pangtonggua), yet there is no entry for Lai himself, presumably because he is from a later century beyond the scope of the book. We can only hope that Nielsen or another scholar will soon tackle creating the companion to this Companion, one that will cover pre-Han and post-Song Yijing topics.
This book is highly readable on its own, or as a companion to others. Nielsen’s work is to be commended, and the publisher is to be thanked for issuing these new, affordable paper and ebook editions.
The Essential Translation of the Ancient Chinese Oracle and Book of Wisdom
Viking, 2014 , $39.95
Hardcover, 855 pp
Also available in paperback, audio, and ebook
When it comes to the Yijing, it is wonderful to encounter translations and commentaries that are done with a love for the book, rendered in approachable ways, yet rooted in solid thinking and research. John Minford has created an Yijing that is monumental and multilayered in so many ways.
The book is constructed of two halves, each with its own translation. The first part is titled the “Book of Wisdom” and contains the complete Yijing text along with Minford’s extensive commentary. For this, Minford draws from a number of sources including the eighteenth-century Daoist Liu Yiming, contemporary philosopher and Daoist Chen Guying, and Professor Mun Kin Chok. Minford draws as well from Wang Bi, James Legge, and others, and from Chinese poetry. Minford uses Latin translations of the oracles (e.g., Transire magnum flumen for “To cross a Great Stream”) and the trigram descriptions within the Great Images (Coelum in medio montis for “Heaven within the Mountain”). He explains that he has done so in order to evoke a “timeless mood of contemplation” and to connect between Chinese and European traditions of self-cultivation. The hexagrams are here numbered with roman numerals.
The second part is the “Bronze Age Oracle,” and contains the Zhouyi core text and Minford’s comments. Hexagram names are given in ancient script and pronunciation, and numbered with arabic numerals. For this section’s distinct flavor, Minford draws on contemporary research into the ancient Zhouyi—pre-Daoist, pre-Confucian, pre-Buddhist. The translations are distinct from Part One, giving the reader a chance to mull on the lengthy history of the Yijing and the evolution of how people thought about it and used it. To contrast the two sections, here is Line One from Hexagram 6 Conflict:
Part One: The matter / Does not endure, / Non diu durabit / There is some slight talk. / Ultimately / All is Auspicious / In fine optimum.
Part Two: Service / Cut short. / Slight complaint. / Auspicious Conclusion.
Minford states that his is not “a scholarly translation for specialists” but for lay readers to use the book in consultation. However, this does not mean that it is superficial in any manner. It has the hallmarks of a mature scholar’s wide-ranging insights, and melds information from many commentary traditions, including Daoist and Confucian, into something unique.
The main sections of the book are supplemented by a very helpful annotated bibliography grouped by topic, a list of names and dates (without Chinese characters), an extensive glossary, and index.
Minford’s book is not perfect, though. With so much material, at some point book design becomes an issue. Citing the already great number of pages for his book, Minford elected to make seventy pages of detailed notes available online at the author’s website. Reading the notes is interesting in itself, to follow his thinking, or to read poems and other quotes that he decided to remove from the main work. In addition, while centered lines for the original text create a sense of poetry and great esteem for the original text, they are somewhat harder to read. Double-spacing is used to distinguish the Zhouyi layer and is enhanced by a seal-style graphic, but all of these conspire to use up lavish amount of space that further contributes to rendering this book a bulky 850 pages at 1.2 kg (close to three pounds).
In his I Ching: The Essential Translation, John Minford has created a multilayered, insightful work that deserves much contemplation.