Harmen Mesker visited the archive that holds the great I Ching translator Richard Wilhelm’s papers. Harmen gives us a taste of what he found, on his website.
Harmen Mesker visited the archive that holds the great I Ching translator Richard Wilhelm’s papers. Harmen gives us a taste of what he found, on his website.
Book of Changes: The Original Core of the I Ching
by Lars Bo Christensen
paperback, 392 pages
audio edition available
Excerpt available as
I Ching: The Core Kindle Edition
The Book of Changes by Lars Bo Christensen is a compendium of material suitable for close study of the Zhouyi. The book has discussion of the historical backdrop of the Zhouyi, including selections from the Zuozhuan, one of the earliest texts that mentions the Zhouyi. Hexagrams are presented in Chinese with English translation and concordance, including discussion of the meanings of specific characters that allows the reader to follow Christensen’s thought process. Frequently occurring characters are provided in a separate glossary.
The Zhouyi translation is repeated at the end of the book, for easy access for divination purposes, along with the author’s terse summary of hexagrams and line meanings. Instructions are given for yarrow stalks and coins. (It should be noted that, taking advantage of the flexibility of self-publishing, the author has since issued I Ching: The Core Kindle Edition, described as a “simpler and more handy alternative” aimed at general readers who may not be as interested in his in-depth analysis of the Chinese text.)
This translation is helpful for anyone exploring details of the core Zhouyi text, and can be used in conjunction with Richard Rutt’s Zhouyi, Richard Kunst’s thesis notes (available online), Stephen Field’s Duke of Zhou Changes, Bradford Hatcher’s online I Ching works, and Edward Shaughnessy’s many books on the Yi. As a concordance, it draws from much prior scholarship and is much more topic- and era-specific than earlier Riitsima/Karcher concordances.
The book has a few problems in editing and formatting. One is that in the solo translation in the back, the paired hexagrams are not on facing pages. This is unfortunate, as Christensen has some important discussion of the pairings in an earlier chapter, and it would have been helpful to be able to compare the hexagram pairs without having to turn pages. Another puzzling choice: the Zuozhuan section is supplied in Chinese, with Christensen’s English summary and comments, but without full translation.
Overall, the Book of Changes: The Original Core of the I Ching is a good choice for the serious student of the Zhouyi; the tools it provides will help readers take an even closer look at the text, even if they do not have specialized language training.
The Essential Translation of the Ancient Chinese Oracle and Book of Wisdom
Viking, 2014 , $39.95
Hardcover, 855 pp
Also available in paperback, audio, and ebook
When it comes to the Yijing, it is wonderful to encounter translations and commentaries that are done with a love for the book, rendered in approachable ways, yet rooted in solid thinking and research. John Minford has created an Yijing that is monumental and multilayered in so many ways.
The book is constructed of two halves, each with its own translation. The first part is titled the “Book of Wisdom” and contains the complete Yijing text along with Minford’s extensive commentary. For this, Minford draws from a number of sources including the eighteenth-century Daoist Liu Yiming, contemporary philosopher and Daoist Chen Guying, and Professor Mun Kin Chok. Minford draws as well from Wang Bi, James Legge, and others, and from Chinese poetry. Minford uses Latin translations of the oracles (e.g., Transire magnum flumen for “To cross a Great Stream”) and the trigram descriptions within the Great Images (Coelum in medio montis for “Heaven within the Mountain”). He explains that he has done so in order to evoke a “timeless mood of contemplation” and to connect between Chinese and European traditions of self-cultivation. The hexagrams are here numbered with roman numerals.
The second part is the “Bronze Age Oracle,” and contains the Zhouyi core text and Minford’s comments. Hexagram names are given in ancient script and pronunciation, and numbered with arabic numerals. For this section’s distinct flavor, Minford draws on contemporary research into the ancient Zhouyi—pre-Daoist, pre-Confucian, pre-Buddhist. The translations are distinct from Part One, giving the reader a chance to mull on the lengthy history of the Yijing and the evolution of how people thought about it and used it. To contrast the two sections, here is Line One from Hexagram 6 Conflict:
Part One: The matter / Does not endure, / Non diu durabit / There is some slight talk. / Ultimately / All is Auspicious / In fine optimum.
Part Two: Service / Cut short. / Slight complaint. / Auspicious Conclusion.
Minford states that his is not “a scholarly translation for specialists” but for lay readers to use the book in consultation. However, this does not mean that it is superficial in any manner. It has the hallmarks of a mature scholar’s wide-ranging insights, and melds information from many commentary traditions, including Daoist and Confucian, into something unique.
The main sections of the book are supplemented by a very helpful annotated bibliography grouped by topic, a list of names and dates (without Chinese characters), an extensive glossary, and index.
Minford’s book is not perfect, though. With so much material, at some point book design becomes an issue. Citing the already great number of pages for his book, Minford elected to make seventy pages of detailed notes available online at the author’s website. Reading the notes is interesting in itself, to follow his thinking, or to read poems and other quotes that he decided to remove from the main work. In addition, while centered lines for the original text create a sense of poetry and great esteem for the original text, they are somewhat harder to read. Double-spacing is used to distinguish the Zhouyi layer and is enhanced by a seal-style graphic, but all of these conspire to use up lavish amount of space that further contributes to rendering this book a bulky 850 pages at 1.2 kg (close to three pounds).
In his I Ching: The Essential Translation, John Minford has created a multilayered, insightful work that deserves much contemplation.
Hidden behind this plain, yellow cover is an Yijing treasure-trove. Stephen Field, a professor of Chinese and an Yijing researcher, has created a book that will appeal to all levels of Yijing readers. He creates a compelling read out of viewing the Yi through the life of the Duke of Zhou, who, according to legend, was instrumental in its formation. This method leaves out the layers of later interpretation and commentary by focusing on the oldest layer, the Zhouyi. Others have used this approach (Richard Rutt’s Zhouyi, Greg Whincup’s Rediscovering the I Ching, and so on), but Field’s version stands out for creating what almost feels like a gripping historical novel about the epic story of the early Zhou dynasty.
Part One of The Duke of Zhou Changes is an introduction giving a concise history of ancient China, from prehistory through the Zhou; an overview of the field of divination and mythical and historical origins of the Yijing. Part Two consists of the Zhouyi hexagram texts, which Field has uniquely formatted in tables that inform the reader of the varied sub-elements within the texts. The head of each table has the Chinese name of the hexagram written in bronze script (jinwen), the hexagram number, the hexagram figure, and then the pinyin romanization and English translation.
The balance of each table is devoted to the hexagram texts. Field has numbered the Judgement text “0” and subsequent line texts 1–6. Additionally, a corresponding visual cue for each line is given: the numbers for yang lines are printed in black ink on a white square, and yin line numbers are white on a black square. The texts are then subdivided into three elements: Omen, Counsel, and Fortune, in the following manner for Hexagram 6:
Omen: There are prisoners, frozen with fear.
Counsel: It is time to see the great one. It is not good to ford the great river.
Fortune: There is good fortune now, but in the end there will be misfortune.
Field then gives explanations of the meaning of the hexagram name, along with historical and cultural information. For instance, “Bundle the offering” in Hexagram 12 is explained as “This omen depicts a common form of sacrificial offering: steamed food wrapped in leaves.” Field further explains the class differences between this kind of offering when done by a commoner versus that by a noble, done with a bronze cauldron.
Part Three of the book instructs the reader in how to cast and interpret hexagrams, whether using yarrow, coins, or an eight-coin method. Rounding out the book are a glossary, bibliography, index, and finding chart.
As Field’s translation of hexagram names differs from others, a cross-reference chart, or in the index by number in addition to name, would have been helpful. For example, Hexagram 36 is indexed as “Calling Arrow-Bird, The” followed by the Chinese characters, and then by the hexagram number (in Wilhelm/Baynes the hexagram is titled Ming I—Darkening of the Light). At first glance, the index seems good enough, but with use, lacks the level of detail one might wish for deeper research. An example: Hexagram 19 Wailing, is interpreted as being about mourning rituals, but that topic is not found in the index.
There is a lot to chew on in this book, particularly when compared with later “Confucian” commentaries. Hexagram 52, as an example, is dramatically different than traditional readings that take it to mean “stillness” and as inspiration for self-cultivation and meditation. Field instead takes the hexagram theme to be “obstructions” in various parts of the body.
The book is quite expensive, which will unfortunately limit its reach to academic libraries and to online purchases. It is deserving of a wider readership.
Stephen Field nicely captures the ancient layers of the Yijing in a way that makes it greatly useful for all audiences. The Duke of Zhou Changes is highly readable, clearly laid out, compact, well-organized, easy to dip into, and an interesting read.
Margaret Pearson’s The Original I Ching “recovers the Yijing’s oldest layer and gives a fresh look at questions of gender in Yi traditions. Pearson, a professor of Chinese and Japanese history, challenges existing views of ancient women’s roles, and the gendering of the concepts of yin and yang, which were originally geographically based and neutral. “Yijing tradition,” she argues, took on later overlays of Confucianism that came to dominate China for thousands of years. Its interpretation was particularly influenced by the important third century commentary by philosopher Wang Bi that emphasized the positive traits of yang (male), and the negative traits of yin (female). She also points out that not only were some women in early China in positions of power, but that they also consulted the Yi.
The Original I Ching includes Pearson’s introduction that covers the context of the Yijing, an explanation of translation strategy, and an extensive section on how to use the Yijing. Pearson gives a good overview of the choices made in her translation of this venerable text (e.g., pronouns in English are gendered, verbs are time-bound). She uses “you should” instead of “the superior man,” pointing out the lessons to be learned from the book. The translation is terse, like the original text, and she describes her process as one that reflects the occasional vagueness of the original. Various methods of casting and reading are given, along with how to take advice.
The translation itself includes the hexagram graphic, Chinese name in character and pinyin (with tones), English name, Judgment and line texts, Pearson’s interpretation of the hexagram, and the Image text. In a helpful gesture towards those who wish to do comparative readings, each entry is followed by page numbers for the Shaughnessy, Lynn, and Wilhelm/Baynes translations. The Chinese text is appended, a welcome feature. Pearson has used the traditional received text, but has added some changes based on recent archeological finds. Appended are a reading list, bibliography, and a clearly formatted finding chart on back endpaper. Pearson’s work can be complemented by the “Women in the Yijing” chapter in Teaching the I Ching (Book of Changes) by Redmond and Hon (previously reviewed here). The Original I Ching should not be lumped together with two earlier popular-market Yijing interpretations that had a “feminist” slant (Diane Stein’s Women’s I Ching and Barbara G. Walker’s I Ching of the Goddess), Pearson’s version in contrast is an actual translation, rooted in solid scholarship.
The book has a gentle but firm tone in terms of guidance, possibly influenced by Pearson’s many years of teaching undergraduates. She has a nice way of drawing lessons from the Yi for the average person’s life, all the while giving much historical background and capturing ideas in brief summary. Footnotes provide for further reading, though surprisingly lacking are citations in her comments where she occasionally refers to Confucius’ teachings. The Original I Ching is printed in a compact format with good binding and paper that will bear long use. Pearson’s comments have a welcome directness to them. This would be an excellent edition to use as an introduction to the Yijing in a Chinese literature or history class.
David Hinton evokes the mystical and mythical in this translation of the I Ching, taking it as a “proto-Daoist” work. Unlike his many prior translations such as the Analects, Mencius, Tao Te Ching, and numerous Chinese poets which clearly are translations, Hinton’s I Ching is quite different, and perhaps best experienced as an interpretive work rooted equally in poetry and scholarship.
Each hexagram includes the hexagram Judgment, the Commentary on the Judgment (titled “Presentation”), the component trigrams, the Image text, and line texts. In the back of the book are a limited number of notes, “how to consult” instructions, and a finding chart arranged in the Fuxi sequence.
In many places, Hinton’s translation is not that different from that of others. But at times, he employs his own idiosyncratic language that begs decoding, such as “the dedication of a bird sitting on eggs,” which in the Wilhelm/Baynes I Ching translation is “sincere.” Occasionally, the language is wildly different: compare these translations of Hexagram 5, Line 1:
Hinton: “Anticipation among farmland fertility altars: If you rely on moondrift constancy to bring forth great bounty, how could you ever go astray?”
Wilhelm/Baynes: “Waiting in the meadow. It furthers one to abide in what endures. No blame.”
Rutt: “Waiting at the suburban altar. Favorable for a heng ceremony. No misfortune.”
Or, Hexagram 18: “All origins penetrating everywhere, decay’s maggot-bowl brings forth the wild bounty of crossing a great river….” Or Hexagram 22, which in Wilhelm/Baynes is “Simple grace. No blame,” Hinton renders “In pellucid elegance moving with the beauty of cowrie shells, you never go astray.”
As only about forty hexagram names are more-or-less recognizable, readers would have benefited from a list of names plus Chinese characters and romanization. Those names that are different are sometimes drastically so, such as “Delicate Nurturing” (Hexagram 9, Wilhelm/Baynes’ “Taming Power of the Small”), “Heron’s-Eye Gaze” (Hexagram 20, “Contemplation”), “Inception Thicket” (Hexagram 4, “Youthful Folly”). Readers might also wish for a glossary of Hinton’s unique terms, and for numbering of notes (there is no indication on the pages themselves when there is a note in the back). The experienced I Ching user might want more background on translation rationale, and source material.
Hinton’s I Ching is a slim volume and nicely produced. It is suited for divination use and for inspirational readings. However, it does require readers to immerse themselves into his unique ideas and wording which are sometimes more opaque than the standard interpretations.